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Scott B. Stevenson, Austin Roorda; Miniature eye movements measured simultaneously with ophthalmic imaging and a dual-Purkinje image eye tracker. Journal of Vision 2005;5(8):590. doi: 10.1167/5.8.590.
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Background: Scanning laser ophthalmoscopes with adaptive optics correction of ocular aberrations provide retinal images of unprecedented resolution, allowing for real-time imaging of photoreceptors. Eye movements made by the subject/patient during recording produce distortions that must be corrected before multiple frames can be added together to achieve noise reduction or to build a mosaic image from different retinal areas. These distortions also provide a high spatial and temporal resolution record of the miniature eye movements made during fixation. Here we report simultaneous measurements of fixation eye movements with an Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) and a dual-Purkinje image (dPi) eye tracker in order to cross-validate these two methods of recording miniature eye movement. Method: Foveas of three subjects were imaged with a one degree square scan using the Houston AOSLO, at a resolution of 8 pixels per arc minute. A Generation V dPi tracker from SRI was placed in front of the AOSLO, and eye movements were recorded at the same time from the same eye being imaged by the AOSLO. AOSLO movies were analyzed off line to extract retinal image motion. The resulting traces were then overlaid on the dPi recordings for comparison. Results: The two methods produced records that agreed to within about one arc minute, with more significant disagreements occurring after eye blinks. Microsaccades in the dPi record were accompanied by overshoots that have previously been associated with lens wobble. AOSLO traces also showed saccade-related overshoots, but of much smaller amplitude. Conclusions: Eye movement recordings measured with dual Purkinje image trackers predict retinal image motion to a precision of about 1 arc minute, except for 10–20 milliseconds following each saccade and 500 – 1000 milliseconds following each eye blink. Retinal image motion measured directly from AOSLO recordings can be recovered to a precision of just a few arc seconds.
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