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John Rieser, Gayathri Narasimham, Peter Capucilli, Aysu Erdemir; Visually perceived distances map onto different forms of throwing for adults and children. Journal of Vision 2009;9(8):1147. doi: 10.1167/9.8.1147.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
This study is about the dynamics and kinematics of visually directed throwing. How is it, we ask, that people look at a target ranging from 1 – 30 meters in distance and know how to try to throw a beanbag to reach the target? For near-by targets, adults and children alike maximize their precision by freezing most degrees of freedom and swinging from only one joint whereas for far away targets they maximize their force by swinging from elbow, shoulder, waist and with a running start. In Study 1 4–6 year old children and adults were asked to look binocularly at targets ranging from 1 to 30 meters away and try to throw a bean bag to reach the target. In Study 2 children and adults were asked to throw again, but without any information about their results. And in Study 3 children and adults were asked to throw after viewing the targets monocularly as well as binocularly. The results show that even the preschool aged children varied the forms to fit with the varying target distances: For near-by targets they tended to maximize precision by swinging from only one joint, whereas for far-away targets they maximize force by swing from elbow, shoulder, waist and with a running start. Binocular viewing did not influence the form of throw or the accuracy of throwing under these conditions.
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