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Elio M. Santos, Edinah K. Gnang, Eileen Kowler; Anticipatory smooth eye movements with random-dot kinematograms. Journal of Vision 2012;12(11):1. doi: 10.1167/12.11.1.
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Anticipatory smooth eye movements were studied in response to expectations of motion of random-dot kinematograms (RDKs). Dot lifetime was limited (52–208 ms) to prevent selection and tracking of the motion of local elements and to disrupt the perception of an object moving across space. Anticipatory smooth eye movements were found in response to cues signaling the future direction of global RDK motion, either prior to the onset of the RDK or prior to a change in its direction of motion. Cues signaling the lifetime of the dots were not effective. These results show that anticipatory smooth eye movements can be produced by expectations of global motion and do not require a sustained representation of an object or set of objects moving across space. At the same time, certain properties of global motion (direction) were more sensitive to cues than others (dot lifetime), suggesting that the rules by which prediction operates to influence pursuit may go beyond simple associations between cues and the upcoming motion of targets.
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