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H. Boyaci, L. T. Maloney, S. Hersh; The effect of perceived surface orientation on perceived surface albedo in binocularly viewed scenes. Journal of Vision 2003;3(8):2. doi: 10.1167/3.8.2.
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We examined how observers discount perceived surface orientation in estimating perceived albedo (lightness). Observers viewed complex rendered scenes binocularly. The orientation of a test patch was defined by depth cues of binocular disparity and linear perspective. On each trial, observers first estimated the orientation of the test patch in the scene by means of a gradient probe and then matched its perceived albedo to a reference scale. We found that observers’ perception of orientation was nearly veridical and that they substantially discounted perceived orientation in estimating perceived albedo.
We report the regression coefficients for the perceived orientation of the test patch in the second column. In columns 3 and 4, maximum likelihood estimations of the punctate to total light ratio, ^π, and punctate light direction, , are reported. For each observer, we tested the hypothesis that and report exact p-values for this test when the values are larger than 0.001. With a Bonferroni correction for six tests, the significant level corresponding to an overall Type I error rate of 0.05 is 0.0083. Values whose corresponding p-values fall below this cutoff are marked with an asterisk. The last column reports the discounting index DI (Equation 16).
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