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Steven S. Shimozaki, Miguel P. Eckstein, Craig K. Abbey; Spatial profiles of local and nonlocal effects upon contrast detection/discrimination from classification images. Journal of Vision 2005;5(1):5. doi: 10.1167/5.1.5.
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© 2016 Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.
We used classification images (A. J. Ahumada, Jr., & J. Lovell, 1971) to estimate the perceptual filter in a task designed to assess both local and nonlocal effects upon contrast detection/discrimination. Three observers performed a yes/no detection or discrimination task of a uniform circular decrement (radius = 0.68 deg) near threshold presented for 100 to 400 ms. Stimuli were presented in ring image noise that either covered the signal and an annular surrounding area (out to 1.36 deg), or only the surrounding annular area (out to 1.36 deg). Both the signal and the annular surround appeared on a uniform background. With ring noise over both the signal and surround, the amplitudes of the classification images in the signal area decreased as radial distance increased from the signal/surround border, and no effect of the surround was found. With ring noise only in the surround, classification images indicated noncontiguous effects at both the signal/surround border (local) and the surround/background border (nonlocal). The spatial extents of the nonlocal effects (< 0.07 deg) were smaller than local effects (0.25 deg), whereas the peak amplitudes of the local and nonlocal effects were comparable. These results suggest that the nonlocal effects were smaller than the local effects, and that the smaller effects would be due to smaller effective areas, as opposed to smaller amplitudes over the same area. Little or no change was found in the classification images across stimulus duration, suggesting that both the local and nonlocal processes found in this study were completed within 100 ms.
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