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weiwei zhang, Marcus Cappiello; Dual-trace Iconic Memory. Journal of Vision 2015;15(12):84. doi: 10.1167/15.12.84.
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Previous literature suggests object perception and recognition may be supported by two parallel systems, a coarse-grained representation and a fine-grained representation. The present study tested whether this dual-trace representation could also underlie iconic memory. In the first experiment, six colors were presented for 200 milliseconds. Immediately after the offset of the colors, an arrow appeared indicating the position of one of the six colors in the memory set. Participants recalled the color originally in the cued location by matching it to a continuous color wheel. Performance in this immediate estimation task was modeled as a mixture of two von Mises distributions differing in standard deviation, which outperformed Zhang & Luck standard mixture model consisting of a mixture of a von Mises distribution and a uniform distribution. This was replicated in Experiment 2 in which the memory set size was increased to 16 and 24. In the next two experiments, a short-term memory condition was included, in addition to the iconic memory condition, by introducing a delay interval of 800ms (Experiment 3) or location changes (Experiment 4) between memory encoding and the test. Again, the mixture model of two von Mises distributions outperformed Zhang & Luck standard mixture model for the iconic memory conditions. In contrast, Zhang & Luck mixture model outperformed the mixture model with two von Mises distributions for the working memory conditions. Two other alternative models from visual working memory literature, including the flexible resource and variable precision models, were fit to iconic memory data across experiments and compared against the mixture model with two von Mises distributions. Overall, the latter captured the data the best. Together, these results support a dual-trace theory of iconic memory.
Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015
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