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Ken W. S. Tan, J. Edwin Dickinson, David R. Badcock; In unison: First- and second-order information combine for integration of shape information. Journal of Vision 2016;16(11):9. doi: 10.1167/16.11.9.
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© 2017 Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.
The modulation of orientation around radial frequency (RF) patterns and RF textures is globally processed in both cases. This psychophysical study investigates whether the combination—a textured RF path obtained by applying an RF texture to an RF contour—is processed like a texture or a contour when making judgements about shape. Unlike RF textures, the impression of a closed flow was not required for global integration of textured RF paths, suggesting that these paths were processed as second-order, or contrast-defined contours. Luminance-defined (LD) RF paths were shown to globally integrate but with thresholds approximately half of those for the proposed second-order textured paths. The next experiment investigated whether this benefit was due to LD stimuli possessing double the amount of information (first- and second-order information). A mixed three-part contour composed of two different second-order texture components and an LD component was then employed to determine how the different cues combined. The mixed path thresholds matched predictions derived from a linear combination of first- and second-order cues. The conclusion is that the shape of isolated contours is processed using both first- and second-order information equally and that the contribution of texture is to carry additional second-order signal.
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