Manuscripts Accepted for Publication

After your manuscript has been approved for publication, submit the following items through the online submission system. These items will then be sent to the production team.


Even if no changes were required, submit the manuscript file, including any tables and figures, as either a Word document or Rich Text File (e.g., myarticle.doc or myarticle.rtf). Identify the corresponding author on the title page and include his or her contact information.

If you are submitting LaTeX files, please upload a separate PDF file for proofing purposes, and also style files in .bib or .bbl formats.


Submit each figure as an individual file that meets the following requirements (does not apply to supplementary figures, which may remain as previously submitted):

Format:TIFF or EPS only. (No other formats, such as Word or PowerPoint, are accepted.)
Upload a separate file for each figure. For graphics files, make sure that you use the .eps (encapsulated postscript) or .tif (tagged image format) format when the figure is a photograph or similar raster art.
Name figures as follows: JOV-00123-2021-Figure01
Minimum Resolution: 300 dpi
Size: Submit figures in the size they should appear. Do not submit thumbnails, which lose resolution when enlarged.
Multiple Panels: If a figure comprises multiple panels, submit it as one file, with the panels arranged as desired for final publication (i.e., submit JOV-00123-2021-Figure01.tif only; do not submit JOV-00123-2021-Figure01A.tif, JOV-00123-2021-Figure01B.tif, and JOV-00123-2021-Figure01C.tif separately.)

Figure captions

Each figure should be followed by a caption. Please include the captions in your Word or RTF manuscript file.

Vector and raster graphics

There are two distinct types of digital graphics: vector and raster. Raster graphics consist of rectangular arrays of colored pixels (ex. digital photographs), while vector graphics consist of symbols and numbers that represent the coordinates and properties of points, lines, areas, and other graphic elements. Each type—vector or raster—is suited to a particular class of material. Raster is best for photographs, and vector is best for line drawings and most computer-generated art. Visual stimuli naturally represented as rasters include gratings, Gabor functions, and other continuous-tone images.

A primary virtue of vector art is that it is "resolution-independent," meaning that lines and edges will remain straight and sharp at whatever size they are presented. Raster graphics meanwhile have a fixed number of pixels, so as they are enlarged, edges become jagged or blurry depending on the method of display. Because of its superior quality, vector art is required for all graphics that can be represented in vector form. We ask that the vector art be submitted as EPS or PDF files. If you are in doubt as to whether a graphic is better represented as vector or raster art, please contact our journal production staff for advice.

EPS format

EPS (Encapsulated Postscript) is a graphic file format well-suited to vector art. Many graphics programs can save art directly as an EPS file. Consult the FAQ for specific advice on creating EPS files from specific platforms and applications.

PDF format

Though we prefer EPS, if your graphics program cannot produce an EPS file, we can accept a PDF file of the art. On many computer systems, a PDF file can be produced by “printing” to the PDF file. Consult the FAQ for more specific advice on how to create PDF files from various platforms and applications

Sizing Figures

Each figure should be scaled to a size appropriate for inclusion in the article. Since the PDF version of the article will be in a two-column format, the figure must adhere to the dimensions of one 3.6-inch-wide column, though, when necessary, the figure may span two columns (7.5 inches). Please take note of the following rules for figure sizes:

  1. Figures should be large enough to clearly show the smallest important detail.
  2. As an electronic journal, we are not constrained by page limits and are more tolerant of large figures.
  3. A single data graph will usually fit within one column.
  4. Two side-by-side graphs will usually require more than one column.
  5. All data points should be clearly visible.
  6. Text in a figure should be legible at approximately the same size or a little larger than the type within the article.
  7. To scale a figure that has been inserted in a Microsoft Word document, select the figure and either drag on the handles or use the Format→Picture command.

Figures for production

When you submit your final production materials, you must provide each figure as a separate file in the appropriate format. For vector art, this is an EPS or a PDF file. For raster art, this is a TIFF file. Please make sure that raster art is saved at a high enough resolution. When the raster is a stimulus, “high enough resolution” refers to the resolution at which it was used in the experiment. Photographs must be at a resolution high enough to be rendered in high quality in the published article. If a figure includes both raster and vector art (such as a digital photograph with labels) it is best to submit the figure as an EPS file (which can include both raster and vector art). Adobe Illustrator is a useful tool for creating, assembling, or editing EPS files.

Tables and Graphs


Submit each table as an individual file. Common formats such as Word, Excel, RTF, are acceptable for table files.

Do not include a box around the table, and do not separate each row and column with a line. Use lines only to separate header rows or columns, or significant groupings of data. A caption should follow the table.


When choosing an application to use in plotting data, make sure that it can produce vector art files (PICT, EPS, PDF). Examples are MATLAB, Mathematica, Excel, Adobe Illustrator, as well as many plotting programs.

Our general philosophy is that graphs are pictures of data, and that extraneous elements should be eliminated. The following are some general rules for graphs:

  1. Use the Helvetica font.
  2. Use approximately 10-point type for axis numbers, and 12-point type for axis labels.
  3. The type should be about the size of type in the body text, when the figure is created at the desired size.
  4. Do not use boldface.
  5. Do not use too wide a range of font sizes (less than a range of 8 points).
  6. Do not use 3D shapes for 2D data.
  7. Do not use bar charts when line graphs will do.
  8. Do not place a title at the top of the figure; this should go in the figure caption.
  9. Do not draw lines or shadows around the outside of the figure.
  10. Use color to distinguish data series, or for other useful didactic purposes, but not for decoration.
  11. Capitalize the first letter of the first word in the axis labels.
  12. If the axis labels include units, place them in parentheses.
  13. Avoid repeating axis labels in multi-panel figures.


Updated March 2021: Please note that at this time, the journal cannot support play-in-place movies in the article PDF, although they should still work in the HTML version. For play-in-place movies, files should be mp4 format. (There are more format options if the movies are Supplementary Material instead of play-in-place.) When you submit a movie to JOV, make the file as small as possible. To do this, you must give some thought to the size at which the movie will be displayed and to the content of the movie. If the movie is periodic, submit just one cycle of the movie and configure it to loop. Through experimentation you can usually find a display size and compression method that yields high quality at a moderate file size. Although we have at present no rigid limit on file size, sizes larger than several megabytes may take a long time to load within a browser.


Journal of Vision accommodates math of two sorts: display equations, which are set off on a separate line and are usually numbered, and inline math, consisting of mathematical expressions within a line of text. Both types of material can be handled in either of two ways: using MathType (or equivalently, Equation Editor), or using text and the Symbol font. Each approach has its pros and cons, but for all but the simplest display equations, we recommend the MathType solution. Among other advantages, the default fonts and styles used by MathType conform to the conventions followed by Journal of Vision for mathematical material. For inline math, text is preferred.

JOV follows standard scholarly publishing conventions for mathematical fonts and styles.

Our standards include the following:

Scalar variables: Times italic, lowercase a
Numbers: Times normal 3
Function names: Times normal sin
Vectors: Times bold, lowercase b
Matrices: Times bold, uppercase K

  1. Use 11 point type for all math if using text.
  2. Avoid multi-letter text names for new function names, variables, or subscripts; instead use single characters and define in the text.
  3. Avoid the use of "*" for multiplication.
  4. Every significant equation should be numbered.
  5. Display equations are considered part of the text, and as such should include appropriate punctuation. If they conclude a sentence, they should be followed with a period.

Supplementary Material

Submit any supplementary material, such as movies, lengthy tables, appendices and other content. This material must have been peer-reviewed. The supplementary material should be identified in the article text similar to a Figure or Table (e.g., Movie 1). Acceptable file types include JPG, PDF, Excel, and Word for supplementary figures, tables, or text, and mp4, mpg, mpeg, mov, and avi for movies. If you have any questions, please contact


Journal of Vision uses a graphic icon to represent each paper on the Table of Contents for each issue. The author should submit an icon with the final production version of the manuscript. The icon should be 96x96 pixels in size, and should illustrate or exemplify the topic of the paper. Natural examples are stimuli or figures of results from the paper. Consult previous issues for examples.

Here are some summary rules for icons:

  1. 96 x 96 pixels in size
  2. GIF or JPEG format (in RGB color mode)
  3. May be an animated GIF (on a desktop, the icon will appear as a static image of the first frame but will animate when the mouse is held over it; on a mobile device, an animated icon will move continuously)
  4. If using type, ensure it is legible in the final icon.

Making an icon from a figure

Unessential text and graphic elements should be removed, while those remaining should be accentuated. Reduce the figure to its strongest, most important graphic elements, leaving out any unnecessary borders or margins.

Useful tools for creating and editing icons are Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Photoshop, and GraphicConverter. If an original figure is an EPS file, Illustrator can be used to edit the graphic elements and to adjust font-size and thickness. The result then can be saved as a small GIF version using the "File→Save for web" function. Photoshop and GraphicConverter can be used to edit the GIF image.

Animated icons

Animated icons are a particularly compelling form of icon. These are almost always a stimulus from the paper or an illustration of an effect discussed in the paper. Animated icons should have the animated GIF format. As with static icons, animated icons must be 96 x 96 pixels in size. Make sure that the file size is as small as possible, lest the icon load slowly and diminish the reader's experience.

Making an animated icon from a QuickTime movie

  1. Open GraphicConverter.
  2. Select File→Convert.
  3. Click Batch, and under Possible functions select Scale, click Add, and set target size to 96 x 96 pixels.
  4. Select Dest. Format as GIF, and in Options, select Create movie.
  5. Click Convert.
  6. A dialog box may appear. Select All available frames.
  7. Sometimes this creates a movie; other times it creates a set of still images.
  8. In the latter case, select Convert, select all stills, select GIF as output, and in Options, select Create movie.

Footnotes, Citations, and References


Footnotes are strongly discouraged in Journal of Vision. Material considered for a footnote can usually be inserted in the main text, in parentheses if necessary. If a footnote is essential it should be placed in a separate section after Acknowledgements and before References.

Citations in the text

Our treatment of cited material closely follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Citations in the text should appear as (Author, Date), with multiple references listed alphabetically and separated by a semicolon. When there are more than three authors, all should be listed on first appearance, but on subsequent appearances use "et al." for all authors but the first. If this leads to ambiguity with another reference, use as many authors as necessary to resolve the ambiguity.

Reference list

The complete references for all cited materials should appear in a separate section at the end of the article and should be listed alphabetically by authors and date. References should be formatted according to the APA style. Consult any paper in the journal for examples of APA style.

The EndNote bibliographic application will automatically format your references in the APA style. A copy of the APA EndNote style file is available for Apple Mac OS, and for Windows. It will also enable you to maintain a personal bibliographic database, and to search MEDLINE and other online databases for specific references. It can also assist in inserting PubMed links into your paper.

References from JOV articles

Articles from JOV should be cited using the format that appears on the abstract page of the article, under the heading "Citation." This format includes the URL and the DOI of the article. To resolve any DOI, use

Reference hyperlinks

Each reference in the Reference List should be linked, where possible, to the MEDLINE/PubMed entry, or to the full text of the article if freely available online. The DOI, if available, should also be included, in the format ""

Link to PubMed

PubMed contains citation data for most biomedical and neuroscience journals, as well as many psychology journals. It does not contain data for books, or for many very old citations.

  1. Go to
  2. Enter enough search information to locate the reference. The reference will have link, highlighted in blue.
  3. Copy the link (in many browsers this is done by holding the cursor over the link and doing command-click)
  4. Back in your Reference List, after the period at the end of the reference, insert one space and the text "[PubMed]".
  5. Select the text "PubMed." Use the Insert→HyperLink command. Click on the Web page tab, and in the Link To: box, paste the link.

Link to article

If the full text of an article is freely available online from the publishing journal, a link should be inserted to the text "[Article]" at the end of the reference.

  1. Copy the URL for the article.
  2. Back in your Reference List, insert the text "[Article]" at the end of the reference.
  3. Select the text "Article." Use the Insert→HyperLink command. Click on the Web page tab, and in the Link To: box, paste the URL.


For Review articles it may be necessary to obtain permission from other publishers to reproduce figures or other data. These should be requested and approved prior to submitting the manuscript to avoid copyright issues later.

Publication Charges

There are no costs for submission. The publication fee, charged only for accepted manuscripts, is $1,850. If the corresponding author is an ARVO member at the time of acceptance, a $350 discount will be applied. Amounts are in US dollars and were set by the ARVO Board of Trustees. (Articles submitted before Dec. 1, 2015, will be charged the old per-page fee instead of the current flat fee.) ARVO does not refund publication fees (APCs), as invoicing takes place post-publication. The fee is not charged for Letters to the Editor or Author Responses to Letters.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

How do I create an EPS figure from an Excel graph?

Prepare the figure in Excel. The following are some special tips for Excel graphs:

  1. Avoid gridlines unless they serve a clear purpose.
  2. Avoid “3D” chart effects for 2D data.
  3. For standard data graphs, use the Chart Type of XY (Scatter).
  4. Select the Chart Area and use the Format command to set Area and Border to None.
  5. Select the Plot Area and use the Format command to set Area and Border to None.
  6. In general, excel defaults to symbols that are too small. Consider enlarging them, unless that would result in clutter. Select the data series, and use the Format command.
  7. Adjust the size of the figure to approximate on screen the size at which you would like the figure to appear in the paper.
  8. Select the Chart Area, and use the Format command to set the font to 12 point Helvetica. Select the axis labels and set the font size to 14 point. Adjust other font sizes as desired. Avoid boldface text.
  9. When the figure is in final form, there are two options for saving it as a vector art file.

Option 1 (requires Adobe Illustrator)

  1. In Excel, select the Chart Area, choose Copy.
  2. Open Adobe Illustrator, use the File→New command to open a new file.
  3. Paste the chart in the Illustrator file.
  4. This technique may leave vertically rotated text as a raster image, rather than text. If so, replace with text.
  5. Choose File→Save As. In the dialog box, select Format: and select Illustrator EPS (EPS), and save the file with a standard name such as fig01.eps.

Option 2

  1. In Excel, select the Chart Area, and choose File→Print Preview.
  2. Click on the Setup button, and in the dialog box click the Chart tab, and under Printed Chart Size, choose Custom. Click OK. This will preserve the size and aspect ratio of the figure.
  3. Click on the Print button, and print the figure to a PDF file with a standard name such as fig01.pdf.
  4. (Optional) In illustrator, open the PDF file, adjust as desired. Choose File–>Save As. In the dialog box, select Format: and select Illustrator EPS (EPS), and save the file with a standard name such as fig01.eps.
  5. (Optional) In illustrator, review symbol shapes. If they are missing a corner (e.g. from diamonds), then select one data point, choose Select-Same→Fill & Stroke command, and then in the Stroke window, choose Projecting Cap from the Cap Options.

How do I create an EPS figure from a PowerPoint slide?

See "How do I create an EPS figure from an Excel graph?"

How do I create an EPS figure from a MATLAB graph?

  1. From the File menu select Save As....
  2. Select EPS file format
  3. Enter a standardized name such as fig01.eps, and click OK.

An alternative method is to use a MATLAB print command. For example the following creates the EPS file fig02.eps in the current working directory from the current figure 2:

  • print-f2-deps fig02

The general syntax to print to an .eps file is:

  • print-deps[-f#] filename

where # is the figure number. Leaving out the -f# flag will just print the "current" figure. The variations of the deps switch are:

  • deps % EPS
  • depsc % EPS Color
  • deps2 % EPS Level 2
  • depsc2 % EPS Level 2 Color

How do I create an EPS figure from a Mathematica graph?

  1. Create the figure in Mathematica. As far as possible, give the figure the final styles, fonts, and sizes that you desire.
  2. Select the figure and use the command: Edit→Save Selection As→EPS.
  3. In the resulting dialog, give the file a standard name like fig01.eps.
  4. If you wish, open the EPS file in an EPS editing program like Adobe Illustrator, and adjust graphic details.
  5. If you are using Microsoft Word to compose the manuscript, use the command Insert→Figure From File and select the file fig01.eps.
  6. In Microsoft Word, the file may appear rasterized (it is only showing you a low-resolution profile). To verify the final quality, you may wish to print the manuscript to a PDF file and examine the graphic.

How do I create a QuickTime Movie using Mathematica?

  1. Create a sequence of frames in Mathematica using standard graphics functions.
  2. Select the set of frames.
  3. Use the command Cell→Convert To→QuickTime.
  4. In the dialog box, select a format (Graphics works well for vector art, Motion JPEG will be better for raster art).
  5. Save with a standardized name such as

How do I create a QuickTime Movie using PowerPoint

  1. Create a series of slides, one for each distinct frame in your movie. Use the drawing tools, or paste material from other applications, to create the slides.
  2. Choose Save as from the File menu
  3. In the Format pull-down menu choose PowerPoint Movie

The result is a QuickTime movie. You can use a QuickTime editing program such as QuickTime Player Pro to change properties of the movie, such as size, frame rate, or how it is compressed.



The designation of a Microsoft Word file. These files usually have the extension .doc.


Digital object identifier. This is a mechanism for identifying digital objects. Each JOV article has a DOI which for the example of volume 4, issue 6, article 7 would be Journal of Vision (2004) Watson 14 For more information consult


CSV (comma-separated-values) is a widely used format for tabular data such as spreadsheets. Items are separated by commas, and rows are separated by carriage returns. The file extension is usually .csv.


Encapsulated Postscript (EPS) is a widely-used file format for pictures. It is based on the PostScript language, and is particularly well-suited to containing vector art. It can also contain both raster and vector art. Adobe Illustrator is a useful tool for editing EPS files. EPS files can be inserted into a Microsoft Word file through the Insert–>Picture from file command. The file extension is usually .eps.


Graphics Interchange Format: A Standard format for representing graphic images, especially on the web. This format can also contain animations (“animated gif”). The file extension is usually .gif.


Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) is a file format often used for raster images. It is a compressed format, and is best suited to continuous tone color or grayscale images, especially photographs. JPEG images can be inserted into a Microsoft Word file through the Insert–>Picture from file command. The file extension is usually .jpg.


Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format that promises device-independent representation of text and graphics. Developed and promoted by Adobe, it can be viewed using many browsers on many computer platforms. It can also be edited using the Adobe Illustrator program. Like EPS files, it is suited to representation of vector art or vector/raster compositions. Many applications can “print” directly to a PDF file. The file extension is usually .pdf.


MEDLINE is a public database of bibliographic data on publications in biology and medicine, maintained by the National Library of Medicine. PubMed is an online interface to this database, which allows easy searching for references as well as other information. Each reference in a JOV article is accompanied by a link to the corresponding PubMed entry. To try the PubMed search engine, go to

QuickTime is a multimedia format developed by Apple Computer that is useful for storing digital video.

Raster Art

Graphics composed of rectangular arrays of pixels. Digital photographs are an example. Typical file formats for raster art are TIFF, JPEG, GIF.


Rich Text Format (RTF) is a standard format for representing word processing files that include formatting, styles, and graphics. Many word processing applications will write to and/or read from an RTF file. The file extension is usually .rtf.


Tag Image File Format (TIFF) is a file format often used for raster images. The file extension is usually .tif.


A uniform Resource Locator (URL) is a means of locating resources on the internet. For more information, consult the World Wide Web Consortium.

Vector Art

Graphics composed of symbolic graphics primitives, such as points, lines, color descriptors, and filled areas. Postscript drawings are an example. The EPS file format is capable of storing vector art.


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