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Zissis A. Pappas, Arien Mack; KDE: Extrapolating a 3-D representation. Journal of Vision 2002;2(7):662. doi: 10.1167/2.7.662.
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We reexamined and replicated the Wallach et al. (1953) finding of memory for the KDE establishing that a static projection of a 3-D wire figure, initially seen as 2-D, is seen as 3-D after observing an oscillating shadow projection of the figure which is seen as 3-D. In addition, we asked whether a static projection of the 3-D figure not included in the oscillation episode because it is was a projection from a viewing angle outside the range of simulated motion, also would be seen as 3-D. Both static and moving projections of the wire helix used by Wallach et al. (1953) were simulated on a computer screen. In one condition 12 Ss described the appearance of a static projection of the figure included in the animation episode (in-movie) before and after 30 sec of viewing the figure oscillating through 42 deg. In the other condition before and after observing the same animation episode, 12 subjects described a static projection of the figure 22.5 deg. beyond its closest projection in the movie (out-movie). Following these judgments Ss in both conditions also described two control figures (a circle and rectangle containing horizontal bisecting lines). Every subject in both conditions saw the pre-animation views as 2-D. 11 Ss saw the in-movie view and 10 the out-movie view as 3-D post animation. Almost all Ss saw the two control figures as 2-D (2 Ss each saw one of these figures as 3-D). These results suggest that the representation of a 3-D figure generated from limited exposure extends to an extrapolated projection.
WallachH.O'Connell(1953). The kinetic depth effect. Journal of Experiemental Psychology, 45(4),
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