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Anna Grubert, Joseph Krummenacher, Martin Eimer; Redundancy gains in pop-out visual search are determined by top-down task set: Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence. Journal of Vision 2011;11(14):10. doi: 10.1167/11.14.10.
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We combined behavioral and electrophysiological measures to find out whether redundancy gain effects in pop-out visual search are exclusively determined by bottom-up salience or are modulated by top-down task search goals. Search arrays contained feature singletons that could be defined in a single dimension (color or shape) or redundantly in both dimensions. In the baseline condition, both color and shape were task-relevant, and behavioral redundancy gain effects were accompanied by an earlier onset of the N2pc component for redundant as compared to single-dimension targets. This demonstrates that redundancy gains are generated at an early visual–perceptual level of processing. In the color target and shape target conditions, only one dimension was task-relevant, while the other could be ignored. In these two conditions, behavioral and electrophysiological redundancy gains were eliminated. We conclude that redundant-signals effects in pop-out visual search are not driven by bottom-up salience but are instead strongly dependent on top-down task set.
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