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Rémy Allard, Jocelyn Faubert; No dedicated second-order motion system. Journal of Vision 2013;13(11):2. https://doi.org/10.1167/13.11.2.
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The existence of a second-order motion system distinct from both the first-order and feature tracking motion systems remains controversial even though many consider it well established. In the present study, the texture contribution to motion was measured within and beyond the spatial acuity of attention by presenting the stimuli in the near periphery where the spatial resolution of attention is low. The logic was that when moving elements are too close one to another for attention to individually select them (i.e., crowding), it is not possible to track them. To test the existence of a dedicated second-order motion system, the texture contribution to motion was measured when neutralizing both the feature tracking motion system and the contribution of the first-order motion system due to preprocessing nonlinearities introducing residual distortion products. When the contribution of distortion products was not neutralized, texture substantially contributed to motion for spatial frequencies within and beyond the spatial acuity of attention. When neutralizing the contribution of distortion products, texture substantially contributed to motion for spatial frequencies within the spatial acuity of attention, but not for spatial frequencies beyond the spatial acuity of attention. We conclude that there is no dedicated second-order motion system; the texture contribution to motion is mediated solely by the first-order (due to residual distortion products) and feature tracking (at frequencies within spatiotemporal acuity of attention) motion systems.
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