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Andrew J. Zele, Michelle L. Maynard, Beatrix Feigl; Rod and cone pathway signaling and interaction under mesopic illumination. Journal of Vision 2013;13(1):21. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/13.1.21.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
This study investigates the time-course and post-receptoral pathway signaling of photoreceptor interactions when the rod (R) and three cone (L, M, S) photoreceptor classes contribute to mesopic vision. A four-primary photostimulator independently controls photoreceptor activity in human observers. The first experiment defines the temporal adaptation response of receptoral (L-, S-cone, rod) and post-receptoral (LMS, LMSR, +L-M) signaling and interactions. Here we show that nonopponent cone-cone interactions (L-cone, LMS, LMSR) have monophasic temporal response patterns whereas opponent signals (+L-M, S-cone) show biphasic response patterns with slower recovery. By comparison, rod-cone interactions with nonopponent signals have faster adaptation responses and reduced sensitivity loss whereas opponent rod-cone interactions are small or absent. Additionally, the rod-rod interaction differs from these interaction types and acts to increase rod sensitivity due to temporal summation but with a slower time course. The second experiment shows that the temporal profile of the rod signal alters the relative rod contributions to the three primary post-receptoral pathways. We demonstrate that rod signals generate luminance (+L+M) signals mediated via the MC pathway with all rod temporal profiles and chromatic signals (L/L+M, S/L+M) in both the PC and KC pathways with durations >75 ms. Thus, we propose that the change in relative weighting of rod signals within the post-receptoral pathways contributes to the sensitivity and temporal response of rod and cone pathway signaling and interactions.
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