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Harold T. Nefs; Three-dimensional object shape from shading and contour disparities. Journal of Vision 2008;8(11):11. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/8.11.11.
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Both non-Lambertian shading, specularities in particular, and occluding contours have ill-matched binocular disparities. For example, the disparities of specularities depend not only on a surface's position but also on its curvature. Shading and contour disparities do in general not specify a point on the surface. I investigated how shading and contours contribute to perceived shape in stereoscopic viewing. Observers adjusted surface attitude probes on a globular object. In Experiment 1, the object was either Lambertian or Lambertian with added specularities. In the next experiment, I removed the Lambertian part of the shading. In Experiment 1, I reduced the disparity of the contour to zero, and in Experiment 4, I removed both cues. There was little effect of shading condition in Experiment 1. Removing the Lambertian shading in Experiment 2 rendered the sign of the surface ambiguous (convex/concave) although all surfaces were perceived as curved. Results in Experiment 1 were similar to those in Experiment 1. Removing both cues in Experiment 4 made all surfaces appear flat for three observers and convex for one observer. I conclude that in the absence of Lambertian shading, observers have categorically different perceptions of the surface depending on whether disparate specular highlights and disparate contours are present or not.
Notes: * p ≤ 0.05, ** p ≤ 0.01, two-sided.
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