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Jessica K Witt, Dennis R Proffitt, William Epstein; The role of effort and intention in distance perception. Journal of Vision 2003;3(9):15. doi: 10.1167/3.9.15.
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Perception is a function of distal cues in the environment, what the perceiver is intending to do, and the effort associated with the intended action. Previous research demonstrates that effort for walking influences perception of slant and perception of distance (Proffitt et al, 1995; Proffitt et al, in press). First, we demonstrate that effort for other behaviors such as throwing influences perception. Second, we demonstrate that only effort for the intended action influences perception. We propose a model of perception in which perception and action are tightly connected. The environment is perceived in terms of the actions a perceiver is intending to perform and her ability to perform these actions. We argue that perception is tracking intended actions and the effort associated with these actions in order to plan actions that regulate energy expenditure.
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