September 2005
Volume 5, Issue 8
Vision Sciences Society Annual Meeting Abstract  |   September 2005
Version and vergence eye movements in mobile observers
Author Affiliations
  • Jeff B. Pelz
    Center for Imaging Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, and Brain and Cognitive Sciences, University of Rochester
  • Constantin A. Rothkopf
    Brain and Cognitive Sciences, University of Rochester
  • Steven R. Broskey
    Center for Imaging Science, Rochester Institute of Technology
Journal of Vision September 2005, Vol.5, 441. doi:
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      Jeff B. Pelz, Constantin A. Rothkopf, Steven R. Broskey; Version and vergence eye movements in mobile observers. Journal of Vision 2005;5(8):441.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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The bulk of published data on eye movements have been gathered in laboratory settings. One eye of a seated observer is often tracked while s/he views static objects or images constrained to a single depth plane. By contrast, eye movements in natural environments are often made while the observer and/or target are in motion, to objects that vary in both direction and depth. We monitored monocular and binocular eye movements of mobile observers as they performed a number of tasks, from scanning a 3D array of targets while seated in the laboratory, to navigating footpaths in natural, wooded environments. A custom-built wearable eyetracker was used to monitor version and vergence eye movements of observers performing the tasks under a range of conditions. Monocular and binocular eye movements were studied within a 3-dimensional array of calibration points surrounding observers indoors, free viewing outdoor scenes, a visual search task, and while walking indoors and out.

In the free-view task observers were instructed to simply familiarize themselves with a region defined as the hemisphere forward from their fixed viewpoint. In the visual search task, observers searched for a small target within a hemisphere. Free to move their heads and bodies, large gaze changes (> 30 deg) were common. Fixations durations in the search task ranged from 1000 msec fixations while inspecting high-density regions. While it is possible to extract individual version and vergence ‘components’ of gaze shifts between targets in 3D space, the right and left eye movements each exhibit main-sequence saccadic characteristics; the dynamics of each determined by the relative location of the two eyes and the sequence of targets.

Pelz, J. B. Rothkopf, C. A. Broskey, S. R. (2005). Version and vergence eye movements in mobile observers [Abstract]. Journal of Vision, 5(8):441, 441a,, doi:10.1167/5.8.441. [CrossRef]
 NSF STEM Grant 0307602

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