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Jonathan Gardner, Stephen Palmer; Joint effects of height-in-the-picture-plane and distance-relative-to-the-horizon in pictorial depth perception. Journal of Vision 2007;7(9):71. https://doi.org/10.1167/7.9.71.
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Height in the picture plane (or height in the field) is known as a powerful and salient depth cue (Dunn, 1965). Rock (1975) found that the distance to the horizon also affects judgments of depth: objects that are located closer to the horizon line are seen as more distant. Height in the picture plane can work independently of distance to the horizon: the horizon itself can be placed at different heights in the frame, affecting the depth of objects, even if distance to the horizon is held constant. Additionally, distance to the horizon can vary if the horizon line changes but the object position in the frame stays the same. However, when the object is located on the ceiling plane, these two depth cues can be seen to conflict - an object on the ceiling plane may be high in the picture plane but far from the horizon. Using a 2AFC paradigm, we examined the depth cues of height in the picture plane and distance to the horizon to determine the way in which information from these depth cues is obtained and combined.
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