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Albert Ahumada; The visibility of Venus. Journal of Vision 2010;10(15):48. doi: 10.1167/10.15.48.
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Venus is the only planet or star that can be seen by the naked eye during the day. Following the method of Westheimer (1985) for representing a point source as a single pixel on a screen with a resolution of 120 pixels per degree, we can convert the magnitude of Venus and the sky luminance into a luminance contrast signal with a contrast of 1.43. Detection models calibrated to the Modelfest data predict that such a target is below threshold (Watson & Ahumada, 2005). Modifications are proposed to the models to keep Venus visible.
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