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Jonathan Winawer; The fourth visual area: A question of human and macaque homology. Journal of Vision 2012;12(9):1379. doi: 10.1167/12.9.1379.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
The fourth visual area, V4, was identified in rhesus macaque and described in a series of anatomical and functional studies (Zeki 1971, 1978). Because of its critical role in seeing color and form, V4 has remained an area of intense study. The identification of a color-sensitive region on the ventral surface of human visual cortex, anterior to V3, suggested the possible homology between this area, labeled 'Human V4' or 'hV4' (McKeefry, 1997; Wade, 2002) and macaque V4 (mV4). Both areas are retinotopically organized. Homology is not uniformly accepted because of substantial differences in spatial organization, though these differences have been questioned (Hansen, 2007). MV4 is a split hemifield map, with parts adjacent to the ventral and dorsal portions of the V3 map. In contrast, some groups have reported that hV4 falls wholly on ventral occipital cortex. Over the last 20 years, several organizational schemes have been proposed for hV4 and surrounding maps. In this presentation I review evidence for the different schemes, with emphasis on recent findings showing that an artifact of functional MRI caused by the transverse sinus afflicts measurements of the hV4 map in many (but not all) hemispheres. By focusing on subjects where the hV4 map is relatively remote from the sinus artifact, we show that hV4 can be best described as a single, unbroken map on the ventral surface representing the full contralateral visual hemifield. These results support claims of substantial deviations from homology between human and macaque in the organization of the 4th visual map.
Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2012
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