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Ramkumar Sabesan, William S. Tuten, Wolf M. Harmening, Thom Carney, Stanley A. Klein, Austin Roorda; Measuring color vision on a cellular scale in an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Journal of Vision 2013;13(15):T32. doi: 10.1167/13.15.32.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
In order to study the retinal wiring subserving color vision, measuring repeatable color sensations upon stimulating the same photoreceptor is highly desirable. Reliable in vivo access to the complex retinal circuitry responsible for color vision is diluted by the eye's optical imperfections and ubiquitous eye motion. Adaptive optics (AO) imaging combined with real-time eye tracking has the potential to overcome these limitations. Here, we present a scanning laser ophthalmoscope equipped with AO and retinal tracking to enable the repeated delivery of accurate light stimulation to single input units of the retinal circuit, the photoreceptors, and measure its effect on downstream visual pathways and perception. Imaging was performed at 840 nm wavelength, while color sensations were measured by stimulating the retina with AO-corrected and retinally-stabilized stimuli at 543 nm. The cone-sized (0.6 arc-min) stimulus was randomly interleaved between multiple cones at 4 degeccentricity. The subject was prompted to report the color sensation by choosing one of five categories, from ‘red’ to ‘green’ by a key press. Thirty trials per cone over a total of 30 cones were tested. High-speed retinal tracking allowed repeatable targeted cone stimulation with mean stimulus delivery errors of 0.5 arc-min. Repeatable color percepts (‘red’ to ‘green’) were elicited from the same photoreceptor. The feasibility of measuring color percepts ensuing from the same cones was thus demonstrated. Testing vision on such cellular scales promises to advance fundamental understanding of retinal processing and establish tools to probe the integrity of diseased retina.
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