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Natercia Valle, Jiahui Wang, Pasha Antonenko, Wenjing Luo, Ryan Rushing; Visual Attention and Learning from Multimedia With and Without an Anticipation Guide. Journal of Vision 2017;17(10):889. doi: 10.1167/17.10.889.
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Anticipation guides are used in reading instruction to activate learners' prior knowledge and stimulate interest regarding the topic covered in the text. This strategy has been found effective in improving reading comprehension in content areas like history, physics etc. (Yell et al., 2004). This study tested the efficacy of an anticipation guide within a multimedia learning environment for early childhood education providers. Seventeen early childhood education practitioners and students were asked to use earlylearningflorida.com to learn about "Setting up the Learning Environment". Half of the participants were provided with an anticipation guide (5 accurate and 5 flawed statements that they were to agree or disagree with). Visual attention and navigation patterns were captured using an EyeLink 1000 eye tracker and Screen Recorder software. Learners in the anticipation guide condition performed a significantly larger number of transitions from picture to text (F(1, 12) = 24.723, p < .001, η2 = .673), from text to picture (F(1, 12) = 27.865, p < .001, η2 = .699), and total integrative transitions between text and picture (F(1, 12) = 27.770, p < .001, η2 = .698). Also, they fixated longer on the text after a gaze shift from the picture (F(1, 12) = 5.591, p < .05, η2 = .318), possibly using the picture as an "anchor point" to process textual information at a deeper level. Anticipation guide participants also spent more time processing readings, (F(1, 12) = 5.433, p < .05, η2 = .312), however no significant differences were identified relative to cued recall and knowledge transfer. This study provides tentative evidence that anticipation guides enhance cognitive engagement with multimedia content encouraging learners to spend more time reading and integrating pictorial and verbal information. Follow-up studies using larger samples and in other contexts are needed to further explore the effects of anticipation guides.
Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2017
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