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Junjun Zhang, Jingting Wu, Xieyi Liu, Zhenlan Jin, Ling Li, Lin Chen; Hole superiority effect with 3D figures formed by binocular disparity. Journal of Vision 2019;19(2):2. doi: 10.1167/19.2.2.
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The global-first theory of topological perception claims that topological perception is prior to the perception of local features (e.g., Chen, 1982, 2005). Our previous studies demonstrated a hole superiority effect (HSE): Figures with holes are more detectable than figures without holes. Such an HSE was shown with figures formed by either orientation-defined texture (Zhang, 2009) or a black-and-white contrast (Meng, Cui, Zhou, Chen, & Ma, 2012). The present study used binocular disparity as one more organizing factor for testing the abstract nature of the HSE, indicating holes, as a typical kind of topological invariance, are represented in vision independent of the features that were forming the holes. The disparity-forming figures were well controlled for luminance, spatial frequency, subjective contours, and other nontopological factors, which are commonly considered as counter explanations against the topological theory.
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