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David Berga, Calden Wloka, John K Tsotsos; Modeling task influences for saccade sequence and visual relevance prediction. Journal of Vision 2019;19(10):106c. https://doi.org/10.1167/19.10.106c.
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Previous work from Wloka et al. (2017) presented the Selective Tuning Attentive Reference model Fixation Controller (STAR-FC), an active vision model for saccade prediction. Although the model is able to efficiently predict saccades during free-viewing, it is well known that stimulus and task instructions can strongly affect eye movement patterns (Yarbus, 1967). These factors are considered in previous Selective Tuning architectures (Tsotsos and Kruijne, 2014)(Tsotsos, Kotseruba and Wloka, 2016)(Rosenfeld, Biparva & Tsotsos 2017), proposing a way to combine bottom-up and top-down contributions to fixation and saccade programming. In particular, task priming has been shown to be crucial to the deployment of eye movements, involving interactions between brain areas related to goal-directed behavior, working and long-term memory in combination with stimulus-driven eye movement neuronal correlates. Initial theories and models of these influences include (Rao, Zelinsky, Hayhoe and Ballard, 2002)(Navalpakkam and Itti, 2005)(Huang and Pashler, 2007) and show distinct ways to process the task requirements in combination with bottom-up attention. In this study we extend the STAR-FC with novel computational definitions of Long-Term Memory, Visual Task Executive and a Task Relevance Map. With these modules we are able to use textual instructions in order to guide the model to attend to specific categories of objects and/or places in the scene. We have designed our memory model by processing a hierarchy of visual features learned from salient object detection datasets. The relationship between the executive task instructions and the memory representations has been specified using a tree of semantic similarities between the learned features and the object category labels. Results reveal that by using this model, the resulting relevance maps and predicted saccades have a higher probability to fall inside the salient regions depending on the distinct task instructions.
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