Purchase this article with an account.
Alysha T. T. Nguyen, Colin W. G. Clifford; Gazing into space: Systematic biases in determining another's fixation distance from gaze vergence in upright and inverted faces. Journal of Vision 2019;19(11):5. doi: 10.1167/19.11.5.
Download citation file:
© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
The eyes of others play a crucial role in social interactions, providing information such as the focus of another's attention and their current thoughts and emotions. Although much research has focused on understanding how we perceive gaze direction, little has been done on gaze vergence, which can potentially yield information about the distance of another's fixation. Here, we presented participants with synthetic faces in a stereoscopically simulated 3-D environment to determine the absolute fixation distance at which they perceived a face to be gazing. The results showed an underestimation in fixation distance for downward-averted gaze and a limit in discrimination of gaze vergence beyond 35 cm. For inverted faces, fixation distance for gaze vergence in the lower visual field (corresponding to the avatar's upwards gaze) was underestimated, suggesting that our bias to underestimate others' fixation distance may rely on a viewer-centered, egocentric representation of interpersonal space.
This PDF is available to Subscribers Only