Purchase this article with an account.
Franz Faul; The influence of Fresnel effects on gloss perception. Journal of Vision 2019;19(13):1. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/19.13.1.
Download citation file:
© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Glossy surfaces reflect a mirror image of the environment. The perceived gloss depends (a) on the blurriness of this mirror image, which is a function of surface roughness, and (b) the strength of the mirror reflection, which, according to Fresnel's equations, is a function of the material's refractive index and the angle of the incident light. Investigations on gloss perception often used simplified reflection models, e.g., the Ward model (Ward, 1992), which do not correctly account for Fresnel effects. Here, possible perceptual consequences of this simplification are investigated in three experiments, in which the gloss impression produced by a physically more plausible reflection model (Fresnel–bidirectional reflectance distribution function [BRDF]) is compared to the gloss produced by two variants of the Ward model under identical conditions. The results show that it is, in general, not possible to match the gloss impression elicited by a Fresnel-BRDF with a Ward-BRDF. Furthermore, compared with the Ward-BRDF, the gloss impression produced with the Fresnel-BRDF under identical conditions is, in general, stronger, more vivid, and more realistic. Gloss constancy is also improved, i.e., the gloss impression depends less on the type of illumination, the presence and properties of a floor, and surface shape. These differences are especially evident with relatively homogeneous illuminations. The results of a fourth experiment, which tested gloss constancy under changes in illumination and shape with a matching task, confirm an improved gloss constancy with a Fresnel-BRDF. Together, these findings suggest that Fresnel effects are used as a cue in gloss perception.
This PDF is available to Subscribers Only