December 2019
Volume 19, Issue 15
Open Access
OSA Fall Vision Meeting Abstract  |   December 2019
Using dynamic contrast estimation to assess interocular summation for non-rivalrous stimuli in typical and atypical binocular vision
Author Affiliations
  • Kimberly Meier
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington
  • Kristina Tarczy-Hornoch
    Department of Ophthalmology, Seattle Children's Hospital
  • Ione Fine
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington
  • Geoffrey M Boynton
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington
Journal of Vision December 2019, Vol.19, 45. doi:https://doi.org/10.1167/19.15.45
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      Kimberly Meier, Kristina Tarczy-Hornoch, Ione Fine, Geoffrey M Boynton; Using dynamic contrast estimation to assess interocular summation for non-rivalrous stimuli in typical and atypical binocular vision. Journal of Vision 2019;19(15):45. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/19.15.45.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Interocular summation has been measured using a wide variety of stimuli, measurements, and models. Our goal was to develop an intuitive and robust measure of interocular summation that reflects naturalistic (non-rivalrous) conditions and provides a direct measure of the perceptual experience of the observer. Observers fixated a Gabor (2 cpd; 4 deg radius, orientation rotating at 1 deg/sec to minimize adaptation effects) through a stereoscope. Gabor contrast was slowly modulated at 1/8 Hz in one eye, and 1/6 Hz in the other. Subjects dynamically reported perceived contrast over time by manipulating a Thrustmaster Pro joystick.

With less than an hour of data per subject it was possible to estimate individual contrast response functions for each eye. Data were well fit by a simple model that indicated binocular summation varied across individuals, ranging from approximately quadratic summation to a max rule. The ratio of the best fitting gain parameters for the left and right eye were closely correlated with interocular contrast ratios measured using a previously-established interocular phase-offset technique (Kwon et al. 2014), including in participants with binocular dysfunction. Our dynamic perceived contrast task provides an intuitive, rapid and robust method for characterizing binocular summation in typical and atypical binocular vision such as amblyopia and strabismus, and is suitable for measuring BOLD responses to each eye independently in an fMRI scanner.

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