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Susana Marcos, Sara Aissati, Clara Benedi, Carlos Dorronsoro Enrique Gambra, Aiswaryah Radhakrishan, Maria Viñas, Michael Webster, Lucie Sawides; Visual Simulators: from understanding of vision mechanisms to applications in clinic. Journal of Vision 2019;19(15):28. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/19.15.28.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Adaptive Optics visual simulators, composed of wavefront sensing, and active elements (deformable mirror or SLM), allow manipulating the ocular optics to either correct or induce optical aberrations, and therefore allowing to probe spatial limits to spatial vision and mechanisms of neural adaptation. Visual function improves upon correction of aberrations (i.e. VA and CSF). However, the same blurred image is judged as perceptually different by different subjects, with high correlation between subject's best perceived focus and native optical blur level. Furthermore, from series of images degraded by similar blur levels but different blur orientation, the images blurred with blur orientation matching the native aberrations were perceived as sharpest. These data indicate that eyes are naturally adapted to their own aberrations. Adaptive Optics has also been used to understand optical and perceptual interactions between chromatic and monochromatic aberrations, and reveals adaptation to blurred images in blue. Interestingly, subjects can adapt to scaled aberrations. Adaptation to orientation bias also occurs, as the best perceived focus shifts away from isotropia after adaptation to oriented blur. The way patients adapt to oriented blur is clinically relevant, for example in the management of astigmatism correction, as habitually non- corrected astigmats shift their best perceived focus to isotropia shortly after correction of their astigmatism., and Equally perceived best focus shifts after short exposure to simultaneous vision. Visual simulators need to be made compact to be clinically useful. A temporal multiplexing technique (SimVis) has allowed binocular simulations of clinical multifocal corrections, allowing patients to experience vision prior to surgery.
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