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Philip R. Cooper, Janine D. Mendola; Abnormal sensory eye dominance in stereoanomalous subjects. Journal of Vision 2019;19(13):14. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/19.13.14.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Stereoanomalous (SA) subjects have normal visual acuity but reduced stereopsis and may have a prevalence of up to 30%. It has been suggested that, in SA subjects, an imbalance in interocular inhibition might underlie an asymmetry in sensory eye dominance (SED). Our study expands upon previous findings by examining binocular rivalry (BR) mean dominance durations, dichoptic masking (DM) thresholds and SED for a group of SA subjects compared to naïve controls. We examined BR dominance durations and DM thresholds for 15 stereonormal (SN) subjects and 10 SA subjects with normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity. All subjects had visual acuity of 20/40 or better and less than or equal to two lines difference between eyes. Individuals who scored ≥6/9 on the Randot stereo test and <100 arcmin on the PacMan Stereo Acuity test were considered SN. We compared near-vertical and near-horizontal oriented sine-wave gratings for BR and DM in order to dissociate stereo-related mechanisms that rely on horizontal disparities from other eye-based integration mechanisms. Mean randot scores for SN subjects were 8.5/9 with a PacMan stereoacuity of 33 arcmin, and SA subjects scored 2.5/9 and 3,380 arcmin, respectively. The mean difference in SED was 0.19 for SN and 0.48 for SA when measured with a neutral density filter bar. The SA group showed a large interocular difference in BR durations that was significantly greater than normal (p = 0.004) and correlated with loss of stereoacuity. Moreover, the interocular difference for DM was similarly greater for SA subjects (p = 0.04) although a proportional difference in monocular sensitivity could partially account for this. We also found that both SN and SA subjects presented higher DM thresholds and, to some extent, sensitivity for vertical than horizontal orientations. SA subjects show an abnormal bias toward their dominant eye for both BR and DM. These data suggest that common mechanisms of monocular sensitivity and interocular inhibition may limit multiple binocular measures and provides a practical link to better understand the heterogeneity of stereopsis in amblyopia.
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