October 2020
Volume 20, Issue 11
Open Access
Vision Sciences Society Annual Meeting Abstract  |   October 2020
Prior expectations evoke stimulus templates in the deep layers of V1
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Fraser Aitken
    University College London
  • Georgios Menelaou,
    North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics
  • Oliver Warrington
    University of Pennsylvania
  • Nadege Corbin
    University of Pennsylvania
  • Martina Callaghan
    University of Pennsylvania
  • Peter Kok
    The university of Tokyo
  • Footnotes
    Acknowledgements  The Wellcome Centre for Human Neuroimaging is supported by core funding from the Wellcome Trust (203147/Z/16/Z). Dr Peter Kok is supported by a Sir Henry Dale Fellowship jointly funded by the Wellcome Trust and the Royal Society (Grant Number 218535/Z/19/Z).
Journal of Vision October 2020, Vol.20, 184. doi:https://doi.org/10.1167/jov.20.11.184
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      Fraser Aitken, Georgios Menelaou,, Oliver Warrington, Nadege Corbin, Martina Callaghan, Peter Kok; Prior expectations evoke stimulus templates in the deep layers of V1. Journal of Vision 2020;20(11):184. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/jov.20.11.184.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

During perception, the complex and noisy visual information relayed by our eyes is interpreted within the context of prior knowledge and expectations. The neural circuitry underpinning this process of inference is currently unknown. Recent neural theories of perceptual inference propose that neurons in the deep layers of cortex represent expectations, which in turn modulate sensory processing in the middle and superficial layers. However, direct support for this idea is limited due to the significant challenge of resolving cortical layers using human neuroimaging. Here, we capitalise on ultra-high resolution 7T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to probe stimulus-specific activity induced by prior expectations in deep, middle and superficial layers of the human primary visual cortex (V1). In order to induce expectations, we presented participants (N=18) with coloured dot cues that predicted the likely orientation of an upcoming grating stimulus. On 75% of trials, gratings with the predicted orientation were presented. On the remaining 25% of trials, the predicted gratings were omitted. Crucially, as no stimulus was presented to the eyes in these ‘omission’ trials, any activity in V1 could be considered to arise solely from top-down inputs. Results showed that such predicted-but-omitted gratings led to an orientation-specific BOLD response in the deep, but not the middle and superficial layers of V1. In contrast, actually presented stimuli activated all layers of V1. These results provide novel insights into the neural circuitry by which the brain integrates prior expectations with sensory inputs in the service of perceptual inference.

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