February 2022
Volume 22, Issue 3
Open Access
Optica Fall Vision Meeting Abstract  |   February 2022
Invited Session V: GABAergic function and dysfunction in visual perception: Strong evidence against a common center-surround mechanism in visual processing
Author Affiliations
  • Duje Tadin
    Brain & Cognitive Sciences, Center for Visual Science, Ophthalmology, and Neuroscience, University of Rochester
Journal of Vision February 2022, Vol.22, 58. doi:https://doi.org/10.1167/jov.22.3.58
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      Duje Tadin; Invited Session V: GABAergic function and dysfunction in visual perception: Strong evidence against a common center-surround mechanism in visual processing. Journal of Vision 2022;22(3):58. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/jov.22.3.58.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Events and objects in the world generally do not occur in isolation. This surrounding spatial and temporal information has major effects on visual processing, effects that are typically described as contextual modulations. Given qualitative similarities among various contextual surround effects (e.g., the effects tend to exaggerate differences and suppress uniform stimuli), it might seem intuitive that these processes are related. It is unknown, however, whether contextual modulation processes across visual sub-modalities are independent, or at least in part share a common underlying mechanism. This is especially relevant for clinical work where these contextual effects are often linked to inhibitory function. We addressed this question using an individual differences approach in three different populations (total N = 129): neurotypical adults, older adults and patients with schizophrenia. The context battery included six tasks that assessed surround modulations in luminance, contrast, orientation, motion (2X) and size domains. The results revealed robust contextual effects across all tasks. However, despite large sample sizes, we found no significant correlations among different contextual tasks. Across groups, we did find significant differences: (a) weaker surround contrast effect in both schizophrenia and older adults, (b) stronger repulsive surround tilt and motion effects in older adults and (c) weaker surround suppression for motion in both schizophrenia and older adults. We find that (1) strength of contextual modulation does not correlate across visual sub-modalities and (2) deficits in contextual modulation that go in different directions. Together, this indicates an absence of a common underlying mechanism for contextual modulation in vision.

Footnotes
 Funding: None
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