August 2023
Volume 23, Issue 9
Open Access
Vision Sciences Society Annual Meeting Abstract  |   August 2023
Investigation of camera-free eye tracking glasses compared to a video-based system
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Claudia Martin Calderon
    University Of Waterloo, Faculty of Health
  • Abdullah Zafar
    University Of Waterloo, Faculty of Health
  • Anne Marie Yeboah
    University Of Waterloo, School of Optometry & Vision Science
  • Kristine Dalton
    University Of Waterloo, School of Optometry & Vision Science
  • Elizabeth Irving
    University Of Waterloo, School of Optometry & Vision Science
  • Ewa Niechwiej-Szwedo
    University Of Waterloo, Faculty of Health
  • Footnotes
    Acknowledgements  NSERC
Journal of Vision August 2023, Vol.23, 5797. doi:
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      Claudia Martin Calderon, Abdullah Zafar, Anne Marie Yeboah, Kristine Dalton, Elizabeth Irving, Ewa Niechwiej-Szwedo; Investigation of camera-free eye tracking glasses compared to a video-based system. Journal of Vision 2023;23(9):5797.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Eye movements provide insight into human cognitive and sensorimotor control. However, most research has been constrained to traditional laboratories. Recent advances in eye tracking technology could facilitate research and application in ecological settings such as aviation training or sideline assessment. It is important to confirm the accuracy of the emerging systems. Here we compare a system consisting of camera-free eye tracking glasses with a research grade video-based system. Eleven healthy participants (22.6±2.8 years) were tested using a saccade task (target range 3-25°). Eye movements were recorded simultaneously using a video-based system (EyeLink-2, SR Research) and a portable eye/gaze tracking system (Mindlink, AdHawk Microsystems) at 250 Hz. Calibration for each system was performed separately following guidelines (accuracy error was <1deg). The head was stabilized in a chinrest throughout the experiment. Results showed a mean amplitude difference between the systems of 0.05°±2.05 and mean peak velocity difference of 28.98°/sec ±65.33. Analyses of the results revealed two important factors associated with larger errors between the systems. First, greater error was found in individuals wearing contact lenses (n=4) compared to non-contact lens wearers (n=7) (amplitude: 0.24°±2.13 vs -0.05°±2.00; peak velocity: 45.96°/sec ±66.6 vs 20.32°/sec ±62.94). Second, linear regression analysis revealed Mindlink calibration precision explained 50% of variance in amplitude difference, and 0.3% variance in peak velocity difference between the systems. The Mindlink system offers unprecedented advantage for recording of eye and gaze movements in ecological settings. Our study provides important insight regarding two factors that could contribute to significant errors in saccade amplitude and peak velocity: 1) errors may be higher in individuals wearing contact lenses; 2) in addition to accuracy, Mindlink’s precision calibration variable has a significant impact on the quality of the recording. These results should be considered when adopting the Mindlink for research applications.


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